North American B-25 Mitchell

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The Doolittle Raid - The B-25's

80 men took part in the raid.  Five men each in sixteen planes.

10,000 Navy personnel in the Task Force that launched planes.

One man killed on bail-out after mission, Leland D. Faktor, 17003211, Corporal.  He was buried by Rev. John M. Birch after whom the John Birch Society was later named.

Two men from Crew #6 drowned as a result of crash landing in the water off China coast.
Donald E. Fitzmaurice, 17004360, Sergeant
William J. Dieter, 6565763, Staff Sergeant

Eight men captured by the Japanese - Hallmark, Meder, Nielsen, Farrow, Hite, Barr, Spatz, and DeShazer
Three executed by firing squad - Hallmark, Farrow, and Spatz
One died of beri-beri and malnutrition while in prison -
Four survived 40 months of prison, most of which was in solitary confinement. -

Following the Tokyo Raid, the crews of two planes were missing. On August 15, 1942. it was learned from the Swiss Consulate General in Shanghai that eight American flyers were prisoners of the Japanese at Police Headquarters in that city.
On October 19, 1942, the Japanese broadcast that they had tried two crews of the Tokyo Raid and had sentenced them to death, but that a larger number of them had received commutation of their sentences to life imprisonment and a lesser number had been executed. No names or facts were given.

After the war, the facts were uncovered in a War Crimes Trial held at Shanghai which opened in February 1946 to try four Japanese officers for mistreatment of the eight POWs of the Tokyo Raid. Two of the original ten men, Dieter and Fitzmaurice, had died when their B-25 ditched off the coast of China. The other eight, Hallmark, Meder, Nielsen, Farrow, Hite, Barr, Spatz, and DeShazer were captured. In addition to being tortured, they contracted dysentery and beri-beri as a result of the deplorable conditions under which they were confined.

On August 28, 1942, Hallmark, Farrow, and Spatz were given a "trial" by Japanese officers, although they were never told the charges against them. On October 14, 1942, Hallmark, Farrow, and Spatz were advised they were to be executed the next day. At 4:30 p.m. on October 15, 1942 the three Americans were brought by truck to Public Cemetery No. 1 outside Shanghai. In accordance with proper ceremonial procedures of the Japanese military, they were then shot.

The other five men remained in military confinement on a starvation diet, their health rapidly deteriorating. In April 1943, they were moved to Nanking and on December 1, 1943, Meder died. The other four men began to receive a slight improvement in their treatment and by sheer determination and the comfort they received from a lone copy of the Bible, they survived to August 1945 when they were freed. The four Japanese officers tried for their war crimes against the eight Tokyo Raiders were found guilty. Three were sentenced to hard labor for five years and the fourth to a nine year sentence.

Five Raiders have become Generals.
James H. Doolittle
John A. Hilger
David M. Jones
Everett W. Holstrom
Richard A. Knobloch
They were all pilots on Doolittle Raid except Knobloch, who was a Co-pilot.

Most raiders flew additional combat missions after Tokyo Raid.

Four raiders became POW's of the Germans later on in the war.

Thirteen raiders died later during WWII, most in action against the enemy.

All 80 raiders received the Distinguished Flying Cross for this mission.  Those imprisoned and tortured were also awarded the Purple Heart.  Two raiders received the Silver Star for gallantry in the line of duty, Dr. Thomas R. White and David Thatcher.  All raiders received decorations from the Chinese Government.  General Doolittle received the Medal of Honor from President Roosevelt.

Thirteen raiders were born in Texas.
Tied for second is Massachusetts and Oregon with 5 each.
California and New York next with four each.

Thirty Five states can claim Tokyo Raiders as the place of birth, including Hawaii.

There was one physician, Dr. Thomas R. White, on the raid.  He flew as a Gunner in order to go on the raid.  He was one of the two raiders to receive the the Silver Star for Gallantry in the line of duty for saving the life of Lieutenant Ted Lawson by amputating his leg shortly after the bail out and donated some of his own blood by transfusion.

Two men have been named "Honorary Tokyo Raiders".
Lieutenant Henry L. Miller, USN.  He supervised the take-off training of the Doolittle Group at Eglin Field, Florida and accompanied them to the take-off point on the Carrier USS Hornet.
Tung Sheng Liu, a Chinese engineer who helped a number of Tokyo Raiders escape to safety.

Two Navy men lost their lives after the carrier Hornet launched the Doolittle Raiders.  A plane from the Hornet ran out of gas while on a patrol mission and ditched in the sea.  Another plane was lost due to enemy action.
One USN sailor lost his arm in a propeller while the last plane from the Tokyo Raiders group was being moved into position on the flight deck.

Five Japanese sailors from the picket boat which was sunk were taken prisoner by the Navy while the planes were being launched.

The Tokyo raiders were not the first men to ever take a land-based bomber off an aircraft carrier.  Two Army Air Forces pilots took two B-25's off the Hornet's deck on February 2, 1942 to see if it could be done.  Neither of these two pilots were on the Doolittle Raid.

The idea of having land-based planes take off from a carrier was first thought of by General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold in connection with the landings in North Africa.
The idea of the Tokyo Raid using land-based bombers belongs to Admiral Francis S. Low, a submariner on the staff of Admiral Ernest S. King.

Jimmy Doolittle had never been a Captain or a Colonel.  He resigned his regular commission as a 1st Lieutenant in 1930 and left active duty.  He was given Reserve commission as a Major.  He was recalled to active duty at his own request in 1940 as a Major.  He was a Lieutenant Colonel at the time of the Tokyo Raid.  He was promoted to Brigadier General after the raid, skipping the rank of Colonel.  He retired as a Lieutenant General, Air Force Reserve - the only Reserve officer to ever retire in that rank.  He gave 1/2 of his reserve retired pay to Air Force Aid Society and the other 1/2 to the Air Force Academy Foundation.  Doolittle was promoted to full general in 1985 by special act of Congress.


Airplane #40-2344 Take off at 0820 (8:20am) Ship Time, Pilot Lt. Col. J.H. Doolittle, Co-Pilot Lt. R.E. Cole, Navigator Lt. H.A. Potter, Bombardier
S/Sgt. F.A. Braemer, Engineer/Gunner S/Sgt. P.J. Leonard


Airplane #40-2292 Take off at 0825 (8:25am) Ship Time, Pilot Lt. T. Hoover, Co-Pilot Lt. Wm N. Fitzhugh, Navigator Lt. Carl N. Wildner, Bombardier Lt. Richard E. Miller, Engineer/Gunner S/Sgt. Douglas V. Radney


Airplane #40-2270 Take off at 0830 (8:30am) Ship Time, Pilot 1st Lt. Robert Gray, Co-Pilot 2nd Lt. Jacob E. Manch, Navigator 2nd Lt. Charles J. Ozuk, Bombardier Sgt. A.E. Jones, Engineer/Gunner Cpl. Leland D. Faktor


Airplane #40-2282 Take off at 0833 (8:33am) Ship Time, Pilot 1st Lt. Everett W. "Brick" Holstrom, Co-Pilot 2nd Lt. Lucian N. Youngblood, Navigator 2nd Lt. Harry C. McCool, Bombardier Sgt. Robert J. Stephens, Engineer/Gunner Cpl Bert M. Jordan


Airplane #40-2283 Take off at 0837 (8:37am) Ship Time, Pilot Captain David M. Jones, Co-Pilot 2nd Lt. Rodney R. Wilder, Navigator 2nd Lt. Eugene F. McGurl, Bombardier 2nd Lt. Denver N. Truelove, Engineer/Gunner
Sgt. Joseph W. Manske


Airplane #40-2298 Take off at 0840 (8:40am) Ship Time, Pilot 2nd Lt. Dean E. Hallmark, Co-Pilot 2nd Lt. Robert J. Meder, Navigator 2nd Lt. Chase J. Neilson, Bombardier Sgt. William J. Dieter, Engineer/Gunner Cpl Donald E. Fitzmaurice


Airplane #40-2261 Take off at 0843 (8:43am) Ship Time, Pilot 1st Lt. Ted W. Lawson, Co-Pilot 2nd Lt. Dean Davenport, Navigator 2nd Lt. Charles E. McClure, Bombardier 2nd Lt. Robert S. Clever, Engineer/Gunner Sgt. David J. Thatcher


Airplane #40-2242 Take off at 0846 (8:46am) Ship Time, Pilot Captain Edward J. York, Co-Pilot 1st Lt. Robert G. Emmens, Navigator 2nd Lt. Nolan A. Herndon, Bombardier S/Sgt. T.H. Laban, Engineer/Gunner Sgt. David W. Pohl


Airplane #40-2303 Take off at 0850 (8:50am) Ship Time, Pilot 1st Lt. Harold F. Watson, Co-Pilot 2nd Lt. James M. Parker, Navigator 2nd Lt. Thomas C. Griffin, Bombardier Sgt/ Wayne M. Bissell, Engineer/Gunner T/Sgt. Eldred V. Scott


Airplane #40-2250 Take off at 0853 (8:53am) Ship Time, Pilot 1st Lt. Richard O. Joyce, Co-Pilot 2nd Lt. J. Royden Stork, Navigator 2nd Lt. Horace E. Crouch, Bombardier Sgt. George E. Larkin, Jr., Engineer/Gunner S/Sgt. Edward W. Horton, Jr.


Airplane #40-2249 Take off at 0856 (8:56am) Ship Time, Pilot Captain Charles R. Greening, Co-Pilot 2nd Lt. Kenneth E. Reddy, Navigator 2nd Lt. Frank A. Kappeler, Bombardier S/Sgt. William L. Birch, Engineer/Gunner Sgt. Melvin J. Gardner


Airplane #40-2278 Take off at 0859 (8:59am) Ship Time, Pilot 1st Lt. William M. Bower, Co-Pilot 2nd Lt. Thadd Blanton, Navigator 2nd Lt. William R. Pound, Bombardier T/Sgt. Waldo J. Bither, Engineer/Gunner S/Sgt. Omer A. Duquette


Airplane #40-2247 Take off at 0901 (9:01am) Ship Time, Pilot 1st Lt. Edgar E. McElroy, Co-Pilot 2nd Lt. R.A. Knobloch, Navigator 2nd Lt. C.J. Campbell, Bombardier Sgt. Robert C. Bourgeois, Engineer/Gunner Sgt. Adam R. Williams


Airplane #40-2297 Take off at 0907 (9:07am) Ship Time, Pilot Major J.A. Hilger, Co-Pilot 2nd Lt. Jack A. Sims, Navigator 2nd Lt. James H. Macie, Jr., Bombardier S/Sgt. Jacob Eierman, Engineer/Gunner S/Sgt. Edwin V. Bain


Airplane #40-2267 Take off at 0915 (9:15am) Ship Time, Pilot 1st Lt. Donald G. Smith, Co-Pilot 2nd Lt. G.P. Williams, Navigator/Bombardier 2nd Lt. Howard A. Sessler, Flight Surgeon 1st Lt. T.R. White, M.D., Engineer/Gunner Sgt. Edward J. Saylor


Takeoff #16
Airplane #40-2268 Take off at 0919 (9:19am) Ship Time, Pilot 1st Lt. William G. Farrow, Co-Pilot 1st Lt. Robert L. Hite, Navigator 2nd Lt. George Barr, Bombardier Cpl. Jacob DeShazer, Engineer/Gunner Cpl C. Spatz