The Consolidated PBY Catalina

Armament














Home | Specifications | Prototypes | Development | Operational History | Propulsion | Armament | Tail codes | Private/Museum | Crew | Known Airframes | FAA Registrations | Cockpits/Cabins | Pilots Notes | Maintenance Manuals | Multimedia | Drg's/Illust/Diag's | CGI's | References/Links | Comments | Credits | Disclaimer | Site Upgrades | Contact Me




















 

 

M1919 Browning machine gun

The Browning M1919 is a .30 caliber medium machine gun family widely used during the 20th century. It was used as a light infantry, coaxial, mounted, aircraft, and anti-aircraft machine gun by the U.S. and many other countries, especially during World War II, the Korea Conflict, and the Vietnam War.

Many M1919s were rechambered for the new 7.62 51 mm NATO round and served into the 1990s, as well as up to the present day in some countries. The United States Navy also converted many to 7.62 mm NATO, and designated them Mk 21 Mod 0; they were commonly used on river craft in the 1960s and 1970s in Vietnam.

blister.jpg

17ff.jpg

 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

The M2 Machine Gun

Browning .50 Caliber Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun designed towards the end of World War I by John Browning. It was nicknamed "Ma Deuce" by US troops or simply called "fifty-cal." in reference to its caliber. The design has had many specific designations; the official designation for the current infantry type is Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, Flexible. It is effective against infantry, unarmored or lightly-armored vehicles and boats, light fortifications, and low-flying aircraft.

The Browning .50 caliber machine gun has been used extensively as a vehicle weapon and for aircraft armament by the United States from the 1920s to the present day. It was heavily used during World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, as well as during operations in Iraq in the 1990s and 2000s. It is the primary heavy machine gun of NATO countries, and has been used by many other countries. It is still in use today, with only a few modern improvements. The M2 has been in use longer than any other small arm in U.S. inventory. It was very similar in design to the smaller Browning Model 1919 machine gun.

History

A variant without a water jacket, but with a thicker-walled, air-cooled barrel superseded it (air-cooled barrels had already been used on variants for use on aircraft, but these quickly overheated in ground use). This new variant was then designated the M2 HB ("HB" for "Heavy Barrel"). The added mass and surface area of the new barrel compensated, somewhat, for the loss of water-cooling, while reducing bulk and weight (the M2 weighed convert|121|lb|abbr=on, with water, whereas the M2 HB weighs 84 lb). Due to the long procedure for changing the barrel, an improved system was developed called QCB (quick change barrel). A lightweight version, weighing 24 lb (11 kg) less—a mere 60 lb (27 kg)—was also developed

Design details

The M2 is a scaled-up version of John Browning's M1917 .30 caliber machine gun (even using the same timing gauges), fires the .50 BMG cartridge, which today is also used in high-powered sniper rifles and long range target rifles due to its excellent long range accuracy, external ballistics performance, incredible stopping power, and lethality. The M2 is an air-cooled, belt-fed, machine gun that fires from a closed bolt, operated on the short recoil principle. In this action, the bolt and barrel are initially locked together, and recoil upon firing. After a short distance, the bolt and barrel unlock, and the bolt continues to move rearwards relative to the barrel. This action opens the bolt, and pulls the belt of ammunition through the weapon, readying it to fire again, all at a cyclic rate of 450–600 rounds per minute (600–1,200 M2/M3 in WW2 aircraft, 300 synchronized M2). This is a rate of fire not generally achieved in use, as sustained fire at that rate will "shoot out" the barrel within a few thousand rounds, necessitating replacement. The M2 machine gun's sustained rate of fire is considered to be anything less than 40 rounds per minute.

The M2 has a maximum range of 7.4 kilometers (4.55 miles), with a maximum effective range of 1.8 kilometers (1.2 miles) when fired from the M3 tripod. In its ground-portable, crew-served role, the gun itself weighs in at a hefty 84 pounds (38 kg), and the assembled M3 tripod another 44 pounds (20 kg). In this configuration, the V-shaped "butterfly" trigger is located at the very rear of the weapon, with a "spade handle" hand-grip on either side of it and the bolt release the center. The "spade handles" are gripped and the butterfly trigger is depressed with one or both thumbs. When the bolt release is locked down by the bolt latch release lock on the buffer tube sleeve, the gun functions in fully automatic mode. Otherwise, the M2 is a single-shot weapon. Unlike virtually all other modern machine guns, it has no safety. Conversely, the bolt release can be unlocked into the up position resulting in single-shot firing (the gunner must press the bolt latch release to send the bolt forward). In either mode the gun is fired by pressing the butterfly triggers. Recently new rear buffer assemblies have used squeeze triggers mounted to the hand grips, doing away with the butterfly triggers.

Because the M2 was intentionally designed to be fit into many configurations, it can be adapted to feed from the left or right side of the weapon by exchanging the belt-holding pawls, the belt feed pawl, and the front and rear cartridge stops, then reversing the bolt switch. The conversion can be completed in under a minute with no tools.

There are several different types of ammunition used in the M2HB, including the current types: M33 Ball (706.7 grain) for personnel and light material targets, M17 tracer, M8 API (622.5 grain), M20 API-T (619 grain), and M962 SLAP-T. The latter ammunition along with the M903 SLAP (Saboted Light Armor Penetrator) round can penetrate up to 3/4 inch armor at 1500 meters. This is achieved by using a .30 inch diameter tungsten penetrator. The SLAP-T adds a tracer charge to the base of the ammunition. This ammunition was type classified in 1993.

When firing blanks, a large blank-firing adapter (BFA) must be used to keep the gas pressure high enough to allow the action to cycle. The adapter is very distinctive, attaching to the muzzle with three rods extending back to the base. The BFA can often be seen on M2s during peacetime operations.

Combat use

The M2 .50 Browning machine gun has been used for various roles:
* A medium infantry support weapon
* As an anti-aircraft gun in some ships, or on the ground. The original water-cooled version of the M2 was used as an emplaced or vehicle-mounted anti-aircraft weapon on a sturdy pedestal mount. In some cases multiple air and water-cooled weapons were grouped. In some of these instances the mount featured one M2 with a left-handed feed and one with right-handed feed are paired. Four and six guns are also sometimes mounted on the same turret.
* Primary or secondary weapon on an armored fighting vehicle.
* Primary or secondary weapon on a naval patrol boat.
* Secondary weapon for anti-boat defense on large naval vessels (corvettes, frigates, destroyers, cruisers, etc).
* Coaxial gun or independent mounting in some tanks.
* Fixed-mounted primary armament in World War II-era U.S. aircraft such as the P-47 Thunderbolt, P-51 Mustang, and the Korean-era U.S. F-86 Sabre.
* Fixed or flexible-mounted defensive armament in World War II-era bombers such as the A-26 Invader, B-17 Flying Fortress, and B-24 Liberator.

United States

At the outbreak of the Second World War the United States had versions of the M2 in service primarily as fixed aircraft guns and as anti-aircraft weapons (mounted on and off a wide variety of vehicles and ships). It was also technically still in service as an anti-tank weapon, as originally intended. On most of the vehicles the weapon was mounted on it was placed in a position designed for anti-aircraft rather than any other use. Units in the field often modified the mountings on their vehicles, especially tanks and tank destroyers, to be more useful in the anti-personnel role. Reports vary on its effectiveness in this role. There are instances of reports about the "essential" nature of the weapon for anti-personnel uses.

M2 variants

The basic M2 was deployed in US service in a number of subvariants, all with separate complete designations as per the US Army system. The basic designation as mentioned in the introduction is Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, with others as described below.

The development of the M1921 water-cooled machine gun which led to the M2, meant that the initial M2s were in fact water-cooled. These weapons were designated Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, Water-Cooled, Flexible. There was no fixed water-cooled version.

Improved air-cooled heavy barrel versions came in three subtypes. The basic infantry model, Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, Flexible, a fixed developed for use on the M6 Heavy Tank designated Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, Fixed, and a "turret type" whereby "Flexible" M2s were modified slightly for use in tank turrets. The subvariant designation Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, Turret was only used for manufacturing, supply, and administration identification and separation from flexible M2s.

A number of additional subvariants were developed after the end of the Second World War. The Caliber .50 Machine Gun, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, M48 Turret Type was developed for the commander's cupola on the M48 Patton tank, and then later used in the commander's position on the M1 Abrams tanks. Three subvariants were also developed for used by the US Navy on a variety of ships and watercraft. These included the Caliber .50 Machine Gun, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Soft Mount (Navy) and the Caliber .50 Machine Gun, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Fixed Type (Navy). The fixed types fire from a solenoid trigger and come in left or right hand feed variants for use on the Mk 56 Mod 0 dual mount and other mounts.

AN/M2, M3, XM296/M296, and GAU-10/A

The M2 machine gun was heavily used as a remote fired fixed weapon, primarily in aircraft, but also in other applications. For this a variant of the M2 was developed (sometimes seen under the designation AN/M2, but it is important to note that there were .30 and .50 caliber weapons with this designation), with the ability to fire from a solenoid trigger. For aircraft mounting some were also fitted with substantially lighter barrels, permitted by the cooling effect of air in the slip-stream. The official designation for this weapon was Browning Machine Gun, Aircraft, Cal. .50, M2 followed by either "Fixed" or Flexible" depending on whether the weapon was used as a fixed forward firing gun or for use by an airplane's crew.

M2HB machine gun
Name - Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB
Type - Heavy machine gun
Origin - United States

Era - Post-WW1
Platform - Tripod, vehicle
Target - Personnel, light-armored vehicles, aircraft
Design date - 1918
Production date - 1933–present (M2HB)
Service - 1921

M2HB from 1933–present
Wars - World War II, Korean War, Vietnam War, Cambodian Civil War, Falklands War, Desert Storm, Somali Civil War, Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, South African Border War

Specification
weight - 38 kg (84 lb), 58 kg (128 lb) with tripod and T&E
length - 1650 mm (65 in)
part length - 1143 mm (45 in)
cartridge - .50 BMG
action - Short recoil-operated
rate - 450–600 rounds/min (M2HB)
750–850 rounds/min (M2 aircraft gun)
velocity - 2,910 feet per second (M33 Ball) (887.1 m/s)
Max range (updated USMC standard) - 6767 meters / 7400 yards; Max Effective Range - 1830 m (area target), 1500 m (point target) & 700 m (grazing fire)
feed - Belt-fed

m2-mg-large.jpg

Mark 13 torpedo

 
The Mark 13 torpedo was the U.S. Navy's most common air-launched torpedo of World War II. It was designed from the onset as an aircraft torpedo, with unusually squat dimensions for its type: diameter was 22.4 in (569 mm) and length 13 ft 5 in (4.09 m). In the water, the Mark 13 could reach a speed of 33.5 knots (39 mph) for up to 6,300 yards (5,760 m). 17,000 were produced during the war.

Early models—even when dropped low to the water at slow speeds—were prone to not starting or running on the surface. Later in the war the design was modified to allow drops from as high as 2,400 ft, at speeds up to 410 knots. The final Mark 13 weighed 2,216 lb (1,005 kg); 600 lb (262 kg) of this was the high explosive Torpex.

The Mark 13 was very similar in design to the Mark 14 and Mark 15 torpedoes which suffered from problems such as submerged running approximately ten feet lower than set, contact exploder duds and magnetic trigger premature explosions. The Mark 13 design avoided these problems with its larger diameter, lesser mass, lesser negative buoyancy, slower running speed and the lack of a magnetic influence feature in its Mark IV exploder.

At the close of the war, the Mark 13 was considered one of the most reliable air-dropped torpedoes available.

Year of Construction: 1930  
Bore: 569mm  
Weight: 1005 kg / 2216 lbs  
Length: 4089 mm / 13ft 5in  
Max. Range: 5760 m / 6300 yards at 33.5kts  
Explosive Charge: 262 kg / 600 lbs Torpex

mk13torp.jpg

Mark 13 torpedo

 
Mark 9 and 14: These were the later type of depth charges and had a teardrop shape, with a weighted nose to increase their sinking rate and improve underwater trajectory. They contained about 200 pounds of TNT or of HBX and have the same overall dimensions as the 300 pound cylindrical charges. These were primarily used in K-Guns but could be used in racks with minor modifications to the tracks.

depthcharge.jpg

Click here to download the above file